Antibiotics are drugs that are used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other organisms, including protozoa, parasites, and fungi.are drugs that are used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other organisms, including protozoa, parasites, and fungi.

Antibiotics are used for treatment or prevention of bacterial infection. They may be informally defined as the subgroup of anit-infectives that are derived from bacterial sources and are used to treat bacterial infections. Other classes of drugs, most notably the sulfonamides, may be effective antibacterials. Similarly, some antibiotics may have secondary uses, such as the use of demecloycline (Decloycin, a tetracycline derivative) to treat the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Other antibiotics may be useful in treating protozoal infections.


CLASSIFICATIONS OF ANTIBIOTICS
1. CEPHALOSPORINS- they are bactericidal, inhibiting synthesis of bacterial cell wall, causing cell death in susceptible bacteria.
INDICATIONS:
  • Treatment of pharyngitis, tonslitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • Treatment of otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, Moraxella catarrbalis, S. payogenes.
  • Treatment of respiratory infections caused by S. pneumonia, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, H. influenza, S. pyogenes.
  • Treatment of UTI caused by E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia.
  • Perioperative prophylaxis.
2. FLUOROQUINOLONES- they interfere the with DNA replication in susceptible gram- negative bacteria, preventing cell reproduction and leading to death of bacteria.
INDICATIONS:
  • Treatment of infections caused by susceptible gram- negative bacteria, including E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rellgeri, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, group D streptococci.
  • Treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis who have pulmonary exacerbations.
  • Treatment of inhalational anthrax.
3. MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTICS- they are bacteriostatic or bactericidal in susceptible bacteria; they bind to cell membranes and cause changes in protein function leading to bacterial cell death.
INDICATIONS:
  • Treatment of acute infections caused by sensitive strains of S. pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella pneumonphila; upper and lower tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections caused by group A beta- hemolytic streptococci when oral treatment is preferred to injectable benzathine penicillin.
  • Treatment of acne vulgaris and skin infections caused by sensitive microorganisms.
  • In conjunction with sulfonamides to treat upper respiratory infection caused by Haemophilus influenza.
  • Prophylaxis against alpha- hemolytic streptococcal endocarditic before dental of other procedures in patients allergic to penicillin who have valvular heart disease and against infection in minor skin abrasions.
  • Adjunct to antitoxin in infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium minutissimum.
4. PENICILLINS- they are bactericidal inhibiting the synthesis of cell wall of sensitive organisms, causing cell death in susceptible organisms.
INDICATIONS:
  • Treatment of moderate to severe infections caused by sensitive organisms: streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci, Neisseria gonorrheae, Treponema pallidum, meningococci, Actinomyces israelii, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, Leptotrichia buccalis, Spirillum minus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pasteurella multocida, Erysipelothrix insidiosa, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Alcaligenes faecalis, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus mirabilis, Corynebacterium diphtheria, Bacillus anthracis.
  • Treatment of syphilis and gonococcal infections.
  • Treatment of Lyme disease.
5. SULFONAMIDES- they are bacteriostatic; competitively antagonize para-aminobenzoic acid, an essential component of folic acid synthesis, in susceptible gram- negative and gram- positive bacteria, causing cell death.
INDICATIONS:
  • Treatment of ulcerative colitis, otitis media.
  • Treatment of inclusion conjunctivitis
  • Treatment of meningitis, nocardiosis.
  • Treatment of toxoplasmosis, trachoma, UTIs.
  • Management of rheumatoid arthritis, collagenous colitis, Crohn’s disease.
6. TETRACYCLINES- they are bacteriostatic; inhibit protein synthesis of susceptible bacteria, preventing cell replication.
INDICATIONS:
  • Treatment of infections caused by rickettsiae; M. pneumonia; agents of psittacosis, omithosis, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale; Borrelia recurrentis, Haemophilus ducreyi, Pasteurella pestis, Pasteurella tularensis, Bartonella bacilliformis, Bacteroides, Vibrio coma, Vibrio fetus, E. coli, E. aerogenes, Shigella, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, H. influnzae, S. aureus, Diplococcus pneumonia, Klebsiella.
  • Adjunct amebicide in acute intestinal amebiasis.
  • Treatment of acne.
  • Treatment of complicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

DRUG
BRAND NAMES(3)
COMMON SIDE EFFECTS
AVAILABLE DOSAGE FORMS
CONTRAINDICATIONS
PREGNANCY CATEGORY
1.Ampicillin (Rx)- Aminopenicillin
*Penicillin
*Genaxcin
*Foramycin
*Excillin
*Hallucinations
*Anxiety
*Depression
*Nausea
*Diarrhea
*Powder for injection-- 125, 250, 500 mg, 1, 2, 10g
*IV injection 500mg, 1, 2g
*Capsule--250, 500 mg
*powder for oral suspension—125mg/ 5mL
*Hypersensitivity to penicillin
*B
2.Ceftriaxone (Rx)
*Cephalosporin ( 3rd generation)
*Rocephin
*Forgram
*Keptrix
*Headache
*Dizziness
*Anorexia
*Dermatitis
*Abdominal pain
  • Injection-- 250, 500 mg, 1, 2 g
*powder injection—2g
*Hypersensitivity to Cephalosporin, infants <1 month
*Use cautiously with renal failure, lactation and pregnancy.
*B
3.Cefaclor(Rx)
*Cephalosporin (2nd generation)
*Gamot Cefaclor
*Pharex Cefaclor
*Ratimed Cefaclor
*diarrhea that is watery or bloody
*fever, sore throat, and joint pain with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
*numbness or tingly feeling;
warmth, redness, or tingling under your skin
*swelling in your hands or feet
*fast or pounding heartbeats
*chest pain, shortness of breath.
*Caps-- 250 mg x 30's,250 mg x 50's,500mg x 30's
*Suspension-- 125 mL/5mL x 30 mL,60 mL,105 mL,250 mL/5mL x 30 mL,60 mL,105 mL
*Drops-- 50 mg/mL x 20 mL
*Hypersensitivi-ty to Cephalosporins
*B
4.Ciprofloxaxin
*Fluoroquinolones
*Ciprobay
*Cipromet
*Pharex Ciproflaxin
  • dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeat
*sudden pain or swelling near your joints (especially in your arm or ankle)
*diarrhea that is watery or bloody
*confusion, hallucinations, depression, unusual thoughts or behavior
*Tab-- 250 mg x 100's,500 mg x 50's
*IV Infusion-- 100 mg/50 mL,200 mg/100 mL,400mg/200 mL
*powder for oral suspension—250, 500mg/ mL
*ophthalmic ointment—3.33mg/g
*ophthalmic solution—3.5mg/ mL
*otic suspension—2mg/ mL
*Contraindicated with allergy to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin or other fluoroquinolones, pregnancy and lactation.
*Use cautiously with renal impairment, seizures, tendinitis or tendon rupture associated with fluoroquinolone use.
*C
5. Azithromycin
*Macrolide
*Azyth,
*Zithromax
*Zmax one dose
*upset stomach
*diarrhea
*vomiting
*stomach pain
*mild skin rash
*itching
*difficulty breathing or swallowing
*swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
*hoarseness
*yellowing of the skin or eyes
*rapid, pounding, or irregular heartbeat
*tablets—250, 500, 600 mg
*powder for injection—500mg
*powder for oral suspension—100mg/ 5mL, 200mg/ 5mL, 1g/ packet
*bottles—2g to be reconstituted with 60mL water
*Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin or any macrolide antibiotic.
*Use cautiously with gonorrhea or syphilis, pseudomembranous colitis, hepatic or renal impairment, lactation.
*B
6. Penicillin G sodium
*Penicillin
*Pencarv
*Rhea benzylpenicillin*Ritemed penicillin G
*upset stomach
*diarrhea
*rash
*Itching
*fever
*chills
*facial swelling
*wheezing
*difficulty breathing
*unusual bleeding or *bruising
*dizziness
*seizures
*sore mouth or throat
*injection---1, 2, 3 million units
*powder for injection--- 5, 20 million units/ vial
· *Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug or other penicillins and in those sodium- restricted diet.
*B
7. Doxycyline HCl
*Tetracycline
*Atrax
*Biocolyn
*Doryx
*Doxicon
*Servidoxyne
*nausea
*vomiting
*diarrhea
*oral candidiasis
*vulvoganitis
*pruritus ani
*GI irritation
*phototoxicity
*teeth discoloration
*GI upset
*photosensitivity
*Enteric-coated cap 100mg x 100's
*Cap 100mg x 100's
*Known hypersensitivity to tetracyclines.
*Porphyria. Pregnancy. Childn <12 yr.
*Severe hepatic disorder, use during tooth development
*D
8. Norfloxacin
*Quinolone
*Euroflox
*Lexinor
*Norbactin
*Pharex Norfloxacin
*Pharmawealth Norfloxacin
*Uritracin Reformulated
*Urobacid
*nausea
*vomiting
*heartburn
*dizziness
*depression
*insomnia and seizures
*rash, dry mouth, fever, arthralgia and crystalluria
*GI disturbances
*neurological disturbances
*fatigue
*somnolence
*dyspepsia
*agitation
*confusion
*hallucinations
*tremors
*headache
*Film-coated tab 400mg x 100's
*Tab 200mg x 100's
*Tab 400mg x 100's
*Tab 200mg x 50's
*Film-coated tab 400mg x 30's
*Hypersensitivity to other quinolones
*Severe renal insufficiency
*Cerebral atherosclerosis or epilepsy. Infants and childn. Pregnancy and lactation
  • Pepubertal childn.
*Tendinopathies, tendinitis, tendon ruptures.
*C

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