Anticoagulant
An anticoagulant is a drug that helps prevent the clotting (coagulation) of blood. These drugs tend to prevent new clots from forming or an existing clot from enlarging. They don't dissolve a blood clot. Anticoagulants are also given to certain people at risk for forming blood clots.

Anticoagulant drugs, also called anticlotting drugs or blood thinners, are available only with a physician's prescription. They come in tablet and injectable forms. They fall into three groups:
  • Inhibitors of clotting factor synthesis. These anticoagulants inhibit the production of certain clotting factors in the liver. One example is warfarin (brand name: coumadin).
  • Inhibitors of thrombin. Thrombin inhibitors interfere with blood clotting by blocking the activity of thrombin. They include heparin, lepirudin (Refludan).
  • Antiplatelet drugs. Antiplatelet drugs interact with platelets, which is a type of blood cell, to block platelets from aggregating into harmful clots. They include: aspirin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), clopidogrel (Plavix), tirofiban (Aggrastat), and eptifibatide (Integrilin).

    Indications
    1.) Thrombosis/Deep vein thrombosis
    -is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel is injured, the body uses platelets and fibrin to form a blood clot, because the first step in repairing it, is to prevent loss of blood. If that mechanism causes too much clotting, and the clot breaks free, and an embolus is formed.

    2.)Pulmonary Embolism
    - is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a substance that has travelled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream. Usually this is due to embolism of a blood clot from the deep veins in the legs, a process termed venous thromboembolism.

    3.)Atrial Fibrillation/Cardiac arrhythmia
    -The most common cardiac arryhthmia in which the two upper chambers of the heart fibrillate instead of having a coordinated muscular contraction.

Ampalo, Alfonso jr

WARFARIN
warfarin
belongs to the class of Oral anticoagulants (vitamin K antagonists)

Available dosage from:
Tablets
Parenteral:
-injection

Side Effects:
  1. Severe bleeding
  2. Bleeding from the rectum or black stool
  3. Skin conditions such as hives, a rash or itching
  4. Swelling of the face, throat, mouth, legs, feet or hands
  5. Bruising that comes about without an injury you remember

Contraindications
Hypersensitivity
Haemorrhagic tendencies or blood dyscrasia
Pregnancy


Pregnancy Category
Category X: Studies in animals or human beings have demonstrated fetal abnormalities or there is evidence of fetal risk based on human experience or both, and the risk of the use of the drug in pregnant women clearly outweighs any possible benefit. The drug is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant.

ENOXAPARIN
Enoxaparin belongs to the class of Heparin and related compounds

Brand Names:
Lovenox
Clexane
Clexane Forte

Available dossage forms:
Parenteral:
- injection

Common side effects:
1.bleeding that won't stop;
2.pale skin, easy bruising, unusual weakness;
3.swelling, bruising, or bleeding where an incision was made during a surgery or other medical procedure;
4.sudden numbness or weakness, headache, confusion, problems with vision, speech, or balance;
5.pain or swelling in one or both legs;

Contraindications
Hypersensitivity
Acute bacterial endocarditis
Haemorrhagic stroke


Pregnancy Category
Category B

Dwyer, Sean
Generic name:CILOSTAZOL

Brand name(s)

- Ciletin tab
-Clazol tab
-Trombocil

Specific Class
Blood thinner

Side Effects
Headache
Dizziness
Palpitations
Diarrhea
Vomiting

Dosage Forms
Tablet

Contraindications
Heart failure
History of ventricular arrhythmias
Severe renal impairment

Pregnancy Category
Category C: Either studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the fetus (teratogenic or embryocidal or other) and there are no controlled studies in women or studies in women and animals are not available. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Generic name: PENTOXIFYLLINE

Brand name(s)

-Pentoxal amp
-Trental amp
-Toxipen film-coated tab

Side Effects
Nausea
Vomiting
Dizziness
Headache
Flushing

Dosage Form
Tablet
Film-coated tablet
Ampule

Contraindications
Previous hypersensitivity reactions to xanthine-related products e.g. caffeine, theophylline and theobromine.
Recent cerebral and/or retinal haemorrhage
Porphyria

Pregnancy Category
Category C

Carlos, Marites D.

Generic name
: Dalteparin Na

Brand name(s
)
:

Fragmin
Eurodal syringe
Specific class:
Dalteparin belongs to low molecular wt heparin sodium

Side effects:

Irritation or pain may occur at the injection site, unusual bleeding or bruising, blood in the urine or stool, fever, Allergic reaction include: rash, itching, swelling, dizziness, trouble breathing.

Available dossage forms:
available in injection, ampule

Contraindications:
Acute gastroduodenal ulcer & cerebral hemorrhage, Severe coagulation disorders, septic endocarditis,

Pregnancy category:
Category B
: Either animal-reproduction studies have not demonstrated a fetal risk but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women or animal-reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect (other than a decrease in fertility) that was not confirmed in controlled studies in women in the 1st trimester (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters).

Generic name:Tinzaparin

Brand name(s):

Innohep® [syringe]

Specific class:
belongs to low molecular wt heparin sodium

Side effecs:
a bleeding stomach ulcer; uncontrolled nosebleeds; blood vessel damage in the eyes (retinopathy) caused by diabetes;
large purple spots or red pinpoint spots under your skin; bleeding from your rectum or vagina

Available dossage forms:
available in injection, solution

Contraindications:
Hypersensitivity to Na bisulfite, Generalized or focal haemorrhagic tendency, uncontrolled severe HTN,septic endocarditis.

Pregnancy category:Category B

GROUP MEMBERS:
AMPALO, Alfonso Jr.
DWYER, Sean
CARLOS, Marites
WACNAG, Christine
SCHEDULE:
3:00-4:00, MWF, A206

75/100 - you only included 6 drugs instead of 8