Anticonvulsants


The anti convulsants are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers. The goal of an anticonvulsant is to suppress the rapid and excessive firing of neurons that start a seizure. Because of this, anticonvulsants also have proven effective in treating many kinds of dysfunctional anxiety. Failing this, an effective anticonvulsant would prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain and offer protection against possible excitotoxic effects that may result in brain damage. However, anticonvulsants themselves have been linked to lower IQ in children. Anticonvulsants are often called anti epileptic drugs (abbreviated "AEDs") or anti seizure drugs (abbreviated "ASDs").
Anticonvulsant drugs may be divided into several classes. The hydantoins include pheytoin (Dilantin) and mephenytoin (Mesantoin.) Ther succimides include ethosuximide (Zarontin) and methsuccimide (Celontin.) The benzodiazepines, which are better known for their use as tranquilizers and sedatives, include clonazepam (Klonopin), clorazepate (Tranxene) and diazepam (Valium.) There are also a large number of other drugs which are not related to larger groups. These include carbamazepine (Tegretol), valproic acid (Depakote, Depakene) gabapentin (Neurontin), topiramate (Topamax), felbamate (Felbatol) and several others. Phenobarbital has been used as an anticonvulsant, and is still useful for some patients. The drugs are available only with a physician's prescription.

Indications:
1. Central nervous system depression or CNS depression refers to physiological depression of the central nervous system that can result in decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death.
2. Anti-convulsion- convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.[1] Because a convulsion is often a symptom of an epileptical seizure, the term convulsion is sometimes used as a synonym for seizure.
3. Treatment for seizure- Although epilepsy is a collective term for a variety of different types of seizures, all forms of epilepsy start with a random discharge of nerve impulses into the brain. Antiepileptic drugs act by either raising the seizure threshold or by limiting the spread of impulses from one nerve to another inside the brain. As of 2004 the exact mechanism of action is not understood, but there are theories about how some of these drugs work.


1. Generic name:Carbamazepine
Brand names: Carbatrol, Tegretol, Tegrepin
Side effects: are dizziness, drowsiness, unsteadiness, nausea, and vomiting.
Contraindications: Carbamazepine should not be used in patients with a history of previous bone marrow depression, hypersensitivity to the drug, or known sensitivity to any of the tricyclic compounds, such as amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine, protriptyline and nortriptyline. Likewise, on theoretical grounds its use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors is not recommended. Before administration of carbamazepine, MAO inhibitors should be discontinued for a minimum of 14 days, or longer if the clinical situation permits.
Dosage forms: tablets,suspension,
Pregnancy category: D


2. Generic name: GABAPENTIN
Brandnames: Neurontin pfizer, Calmpet, Gabalept
Side effects: it may impair your vision or reactions. painful sores in or around your eyes or mouth; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity, do not use in absence seizure
Dosage forms: capsule
Pregnancy category: C


3. Generic name: Clonazepam
Brandnames: rivotril roche, klonopin,klonopin wafer
Side effects: difficulty breathing, swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat, confusion, memory problem
Contraindications: neonates, hypersensitivity, respiratory insufficiency
Pregnancy category: D
Dosage forms: tablet


4. Generic name: Diazepam
Brand names: Valium, Diastat, Diazepam Injection
Side effects: Clumsiness or unsteadiness; dizziness or lightheadedness; drowsiness; slurred speech
Contraindications: should not be administered in patients with liver or kidney disorders; myasthenia gravis; acute alcohol intoxication; depressive conditions; psychosis; brain diseases; shock; coma; drug abuse or drug dependence; glaucoma; hyperkinesis; hypoalbuminemia; porphyria; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; apnea; pregnancy in the first and the last trimester; lactation; dysphagia in childhood; hypersensitivity to the benzodiazepines.
Dosage forms: DIAZEPAM 2MG TABLETS DIAZEPAM 5MG TABLETS DIAZEPAM 5MG/5ML ORAL SOLN DIAZEPAM 5MG/ML 10ML DIAZEPAM 10MG TABLETS
Pregnancy category: D


5. Generic names: lorazepam
Brandnames: AtivanĀ®, Temesta
Side effects: Depression (or worsening of existing depression), Difficulty breathing, Seizures,
Anxiety, excitation, or agitation, Hostility, aggression, or rage, Insomnia
Contraindications: in patients with known sensitivity to the benzodiazepines or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma or myasthenia gravis.
Dosage forms: tablets, ampules
Prenancy category: D
Dosage form: tablet


6. Generic name: Mephobarbital

Brandnames: Mebaral, Mephobarbital

Side effects: Clumsiness; dizziness; drowsiness; excessive daytime drowsines, feeling of a whirling motion; headache; lightheadedness; nausea; tired feeling; vomiting; weak bones.

Contraindications: Porphyria or known hypersensitivity to this drug or to barbiturates prohibits its use.

Pregnancy category: D
Dosage forms: capsules, tablets

7. Generic name: phenytoin
Brand names: dilantin, epilantin, Samarth phenytoin
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to propylene glycol, alcohol intolerance, sinus brachycardia, leucopenia, cardiomegaly.
Side effect: GI disturbances, slurred speech, lack of appetite,gingival, hyperplasia, dizziness, nervousness, insomnia.
Dosage form/s: capsule, suspension, injection, ampule, and tablets
Pregnancy category: D


8. Generic name: carbamazepine
Brand names:carbilepp, intas carbamazeane, tegretol
Side effects: dizziness, drowsiness, ataxia, fatigue, headache.
Contraindications: AV conduction, abnormalities, history of bone marrow depression.
Dosage form/s: tablet, syrup, suspension
Pregnancy category: D

9. Generic name: Mg Sulfate
Brand names: harson magnesium sulfate, atlantic magnesium sulfate
Side effects: flushing, sweating, hypotension, circulatory collapse, cardiac depression.
Contraindications: heartblock, myocardial damage.
Dosage forms: ampule.
Pregnancy category: B


members:
Abalos, Menche
Claudio, Denise Marc
Mendoza, Shynne Ann
Ochinang, Janine
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