Bronchodilators

Bronchodilators are medications that relax the bronchial muscles. Relaxing these muscles makes the airways larger, allowing air to pass through the lungs easier. This helps people with COPD breathe better.
Many different kinds of bronchodilators are available. They can be grouped according to how long they work (called short- and long-acting drugs) or the way in which they widen or dilate the airways (beta-agonists, anticholinergics or theophyllines).

Diseases treated by bronchodilators:
  • Asthma. A condition in which airway passages become blocked or obstructed causing shortness of breathe . Bronchodilators open the airways by relaxing the smooth muscles in these airways. They are among the most commonly used medications for asthma.
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  • Chronic bronchitis. Inflammation of the bronchial tube linings that lead to a persistent cough. Short-acting bronchodilators relieve coughing and shortness of breath
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  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A progressive lung disease that decreases the ability of the lungs to perform ventilation. Bronchodilators smooth muscle constriction in the airways, increasing the flow of air.
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  • Mucus in the lungs. A build-up of mucus in the lungs causes a constriction breathing passages and can lead to coughing. Bronchodilators work to diminish and thin mucus production.
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  • Emphysema. A condition in which the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs is impaired due to damaged or collapsed air sacs. Bronchodilators improve air flow.
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BRONCHODILATOR DRUGS
1.Salbutamol

BRAND NAMES
Activent®= antiasthmatic and COPD preparations
Aero-Vent®= antiasthmatic and COPD preparations
Airomir®= antiasthmatic and COPD preparations


COMMON SIDE EFFECTS
=headache,
=nervousness,
=hyperactivity,
=malaise,
=dizziness


AVAILABLE DOSAGE FORMS
=capsules for inhalation
=solution for inhalation
=syrup
=tablets

CONTRAINDICATIONS
=contraindicated in patients
hypersensitivity to drugs or its ingredients
=use cautiously in patients with
CV disorders(DM,hyperthyroidism)
=Use extended-release tablet in
patients with GI narrowing

PREGNANCY CATEGORY=C


2.Ipratropium Br

BRAND NAMES
a.Atrovent®=
Antiasthmatic and COPD preparations
b.Combivent®=Antiasthmatic and COPD preparations
c.Duavent®=Antiasthmatic and COPD preparations


COMMON SIDE EFFECTS
=Headache,
=nausea,
=dry mouth,
= increased heart rate & palpitations,
=ocular accommodation disturbances

AVAILABLE DOSAGE FORMS
=inhaler
=nasal spray
=solutionfor inhalation
=solution for nebulizer

CONTRAINDICATIONS
=contraindicated in patients
with with hypersensitivity
to soy lecithin or related products
=Contraindicated in patients with angle closure galucome
=contraindicated in patients with bladder-neck obstruction

PREGNANCY CATEGORY =C


3.Clenbuterol

BRAND NAMES

Spiropent®= antiasthmatic and COPD preparations

COMMON SIDE EFFECTS
=Fine tremor of skeletal muscle,
=palpitations,
=tachycardia,
=nervous tension,
=headaches

AVAILABLE DOSAGE FORMS
=oral tablet
=solution for inhalation

CONTRAINDICATIONS
=Hyperthyroidism,
= myocardial insufficiency,
= arrhythmias,
=susceptibility to QT-interval prolongation
=hypertension

PREGNANCY CATEGORY=B


4.Fluticasone propionate

BRAND NAMES
a.Flixotide® =Antiasthmatic and COPD preparations
b.Nasoflo®
=Antiasthmatic and COPD preparations
c.Cutivate®= topical corticosteroids


COMMON SIDE EFFECTS

=Dryness & irritation of the nose & throat,
= unpleasant taste,smell & epistaxis
=Headache
=Local burning & pruritus


AVAILABLE DOSAGE FORMS
=nasal sprays
=inhalers

CONTRAINDICATIONS

=Rosacea,
= acne vulgaris,
= perioral dermatitis;
= primary cutaneous viral, bacterial/fungal infections;
=perianal & genital pruritus,
= dermatoses in infant <3 mth.


PREGNANCY CATEGORY =C

5.Theophylline

BRAND NAMES

=Euphylong SR
=Nuelin
=Asmasalon

COMMON SIDE EFFECTS
=nausea
=diarrhea
=increase in heart rate
=arrhythmias
=CNS excitation

AVAILABLE DOSAGE FORMS
=
tablet
=
syrup
=
capsule

CONTRAINDICATIONS
= hypersensitivity to theophylline
= patients with active peptic ulcer disease
=individuals with underlying seizure disorders

PREGNANCY CATEGORY=C


6.salmeterol

BRAND NAMES

Salmeflo®= antiasthmatic and COPD preparations
Seretide®= antiasthmatic and COPD preparations

COMMON SIDE EFFECTS
=
Fine skeletal muscle tremor especially hands,
= tachycardia,
= palpitations
= muscle cramps,
= headache


AVAILABLE DOSAGE FORMS

=metered-dose aerosol
= dry powder for inhalation


CONTRAINDICATIONS
=
patients unusually responsive to sympathomimetics
=patients with CV disorders
=patients with seizure disorders


PREGNANCY CATEGORY
=C

7.Tiotropium bromide

BRAND NAMES

Spiriva®= antiasthmatic and COPD preparations

COMMON SIDE EFFECTS

=Dry mouth,
=constipation,
=cough and local irritation,
=tachycardia,
=urinary retention

AVAILABLE DOSAGE FORMS
=capsule

CONTRAINDICATIONS

=Hypersensitivity to atropine and its derivatives
=Pregnant women and nursing womens
=Patients with angle closure glaucoma

PREGNANCY CATEGORY=C

8. Terbutaline Sulfate

BRAND NAMES
a.Alloxygen®= antiasthmatic and COPD preparations
b.Astebron®=antiasthmatic and COPD preparations
c.Bricalin®=antiasthmatic and COPD preparations


COMMON SIDE EFFECTS

=
Headache,
= nausea,
=vomiting,
=palpitations,
=tachycardia

AVAILABLE DOSAGE FORMS
=syrup
=capsule

CONTRAINDICATIONS
=patients with coronary artery disease
=
patients with hypersensitivity to sympathominetic amines
=patients with hyperthyroididm

PREGNANCY CATEGORY=B


SOURCES AND REFERENCES:
http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/bronchodilators.html
http://www.mims.com/
http://shinerama.naitsa.ca/images/cf_lungs_lg.gif
NURSING DRUG HANDBOOK BY LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS AND WILKINS
http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/04/100104-036-0E044846.jpg
http://www.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab001266.html


GROUP MEMBERS:
BILANGGO, JENNIFER
DIONG-AN, JULIENNE
PALENG,KATE
PEKAS, LIBAY

94/100 VERY GOOD! =)